Minggu, 31 Januari 2010
2 cm FlaK 30
The FlaK 30 (Fliegerabwehrkanone 30) and improved FlaK 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns widely used by various German forces throughout the Second World War. It was the primary German light anti-aircraft gun and was produced in a variety of models, notably the Flakvierling 38 which combined four FlaK 38's onto a single carriage.The original FlaK 30 design was developed from the Solothurn ST-5 as a project for the Kriegsmarine, which produced the 20 mm C/30. The gun fired the "Long Solothurn", a 20 × 138 mm belted cartridge that had been developed for the ST-5 and was one of the most powerful 20 mm rounds in existence.
The C/30 featured a barrel of 65 calibers, firing at a rate of about 120 rounds per minute. The C/30 also proved to have feeding problems and would often jam. This was offset to some degree by its undersized magazine, which held only 20 rounds, which tended to make reloading a common requirement anyway. Nevertheless the C/30 became the primary shipborne light AA weapon, and equipped a large variety of German ships. The C/30 was also used experimentally as an aircraft weapon, notably on the Heinkel He 112, where its high power allowed it to penetrate armored cars and the light tanks of the era during the Spanish Civil War.
Rheinmetall then started an adaptation of the C/30 for Army use, producing the 2 cm FlaK 30. Generally similar to the C/30, the main areas of development were the mount, which was fairly compact. Set-up could be accomplished by dropping the gun to the ground off its two-wheeled carriage and leveling with hand cranks. The result was a triangular base that allowed fire in all directions.
The main problem with the design remained the fairly low rate of fire, which at 120 RPM was not particularly fast for a weapon of this caliber. Rheinmetall responded with the 2 cm FlaK 38, which was otherwise similar but increased the rate of fire to 220 RPM and slightly lowered overall weight to 420 kg. The FlaK 38 was accepted as the standard Army gun in 1939, and by the Kriegsmarine as the C/38.
In order to provide airborne and mountain troops with AA capabilities, Mauser was contracted to produce a lighter version of the FlaK 38, which they introduced as the 2 cm Gebirgsflak 38 (2 cm GebF 38). It featured a dramatically simplified mount lacking towing capability and using a tripod that raised the entire gun off the ground, which had the side-effect of allowing it to be set up on more uneven ground. These changes reduced the overall weight of the gun to a mere 276.0 kg. Production started in 1941 and entered service in 1942.
A wide variety of 20x138B ammunition was manufactured and used in 2cm FlaK weapons; some of the more commonly used types of ammunition are listed on the following table . Ammunition types that existed, but is not listed in the table below, include numerous practise rounds (marked Übung or Üb. in German notation), and a number of different AP types. Even a high-velocity PzGr 40 round with a tungsten carbide core in an aluminum body existed in 20x138B caliber.
German Designation US Abbreviation Projectile Weight [g] Bursting charge [g] Muzzle Velocity [m/s] Description
Sprenggranatpatrone L'spur mit Zerleger HE-T 115 6.0 g HE (nitropenta) ? Nose fuzed tracer round, self-destruct at 5.5 seconds (2000m range) due to tracer burn-through.
Sprenggranatpatrone L'spur mit Zerleger HE-T 120 6.6 g HE (nitropenta) ? Boat-tailed HE tracer round with nose fuze. Self-destruct at ca.2km range due to tracer burn-through.
Brandsprenggranatpatrone L'spur mit Zerleger HEI-T 120 2.4 g HE (RDX+wax) +
4.1 g incendiary (Zn) ? Nose fuze, tracer (5 second burn), with self-destruct
Brandsprenggranatpatrone mit Zerleger HEI 120 22 g total (HE and incendiary) ? Nose fuze, no tracer, with self-destruct. Lack of tracer and high density of incendiary allows heavy filling load.
Panzergranatpatrone L'spur mit Zerleger APHE-T 146 ? ? Base-fuzed tracer round, with self-destruct due to tracer burn-through after 2 second flight (1000m range).
Panzerbrandgranatpatrone (Phosphor) L'spur ohne Zerleger API-T 148 3.0 g incendiary (WP) ? Tracer round, with no fuze or self-destruct function.
Panzersprenggranatpatrone L'spur mit Zerleger (Kriegsmarine) APHE-T 121 3.6 g HE ? Base-fuzed round, self-destruct after 4.5 second flight (1800m range) due to tracer burn-through.