Senin, 01 Februari 2010

Service pistol




A service pistol is any handgun (revolver or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel, or in some contexts, law enforcement officers.
History
Prior to the introduction of cartridge-loading firearms, there was little standardisation with regards to the handguns carried by military personnel, although it had been important for officers, artillerymen, and other auxiliary troops to have a means of defending themselves, especially as it was not always practical for them to have a full-length rifle or carbine.

Traditionally, soldiers (infantry & cavalry alike) and officers had carried swords for both personal protection and use in combat. The development of firearms in the mid-14th century changed the way battles were fought, and by the late-15th century it was no longer especially practical to close to hand-to-hand combat range to engage one's opponents, owing the prevalence of pikes and musket-fire on the battlefield.

Training was also a factor—it took a very long time to train new recruits in the use of longbows and swords—whereas the basic operation of an arquebus could be taught in a comparatively short time. As a result, swords were retained only by officers (who were less likely to be at the front of the pike-and-musket hedge) and by cavalry, for whom early single-shot handguns were of limited use.

The invention of the revolver in 1836 finally made a service pistol practical, as prior to this pistols had largely been single-shot weapons usually of no particular standardized pattern.

Although officers traditionally had been obligated to buy their own weapons, NCOs and other enlisted personnel were generally issued their weapons (which they were then expected to either pay for or return to the Quartermaster if they were promoted). Service pistols, on the other hand, were generally issued to officers, NCOs, and others who needed to carry personal weapons as part of their duties. Hence, it was quite common for officers to carry government-issued service pistols in combat.

Special operations soldiers often carry a handgun as a secondary weapon to serve in a supplementary capacity to their primary weapon (a rifle, carbine, submachine gun, or shotgun); this practice is not as prevalent among conventional soldiers. Conventional infantry who do not serve in a direct combat role are often issued a pistol (such as officers, artillery crews, and other rear-echelon personnel), but conventional riflemen are not generally issued a pistol as part of their standard kit.

The tradition of issuing pistols to officers as a primary weapon is being phased out by many nations. The United States Marine Corps, for example, recently began requiring all enlisted personnel and all officers below the rank of LtCol to carry the M4 Carbine as their primary weapon.

The first service handguns were revolvers, but the development of semi-automatic pistols (the first practical example being the Mauser C96 "Broomhandle") gradually led to their replacement by semi-automatic handguns, such as the well-known German P08 Luger, the first semi-automatic service pistol to be widely adopted by an industrialised nation. Nowadays, service pistols are almost exclusively self-loading.

The British Army was the last major military service to adopt a semi-automatic service pistol as a standard sidearm, phasing out their Webley Mk IV, Enfield No 2 Mk I, and Smith & Wesson Victory revolvers in 1969,[1] after which the Browning Hi-Power became the Army.
Angola

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Argentina
Steyr-Mannlicher M1905 pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Steyr-Mannlicher M1905 Semi-Automatic 7.65 mm Mannlicher 1905-19??
M1916/M1927 Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 1916-19??
Ballester-Molina Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 1938-19??
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 19??-Present

Austria
M1898 Rast & Gasser revolver (in the middle)

Firearm Type Calibre Service
M1870/M1870-74/M1882 Gasser Revolver 11.25x36R, 11.2x29.5 mm (Montenegrin) 1870-1898
Gasser-Kropatschek M1876 Revolver 9x26R 1876-1898
M1878 Gasser Revolver 9x26R 1878-1898
Rast-Gasser M1898 Revolver 8mm Rast & Gasser 1898-1945
Roth Steyr M1907 Semi-Automatic 8mm Roth Steyr 1907-1945
Steyr M1912 Semi-Automatic 9mm Steyr, 9mm Parabellum 1912-1945
Walther P38 / Walther P1 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1938-1995
Pistol 80 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1980-Present

Bangladesh

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-
Belgium

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm 1935-
Bermuda

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-


Canada

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Colt Model 1878 Revolver 1885-1902
Colt New Service Revolver 1900-1928
Colt Model 1911 Semi-Automatic 1914-1945
Smith & Wesson 2nd Model "Hand Ejector" Revolver 1915-1951
Smith & Wesson "Military & Police" Revolver 1939-1964
Inglis/Browning High Power Semi-Automatic 1944-Present
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 1970-Present
SIG-Sauer P225 Semi-Automatic 1991-present
SIG-Sauer P226 Semi-Automatic 1991-present


Chile

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Steyr M1912 Semi-Automatic 19??
Walther P38 Semi-Automatic 19??-
SIG-Sauer P226 Semi-Automatic 19xx-

China

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Mauser C96 "Broomhandle" Semi-Automatic 7.63x25 Mauser, 9mm Parabellum, .45 ACP 1915-1949
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1942-1945
Type 51/54 Semi-Automatic 7.62x25 Tokarev 1951-1981
Type 77 Semi-Automatic 7.65x17 1981-Present
QSZ-92 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1996-Present
Egypt

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum

Estonia

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Heckler & Koch USP Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum 2007-

Finland
Lahti L-35 service pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Pistol M/19 Semi-Automatic .32 ACP 1919-1971
Pistol M/23 Semi-Automatic 7.65mm Parabellum 1922-1980
Lahti L-35 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1935-1980
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9 mm Parabellum 1940-1980
9.00 PIST 80-91 (FN HP-DA) Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1980-Present
9.00 PIST 2003 (Walther P99) Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 2003-Present

France
Lebel M1892 revolver

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Chamelot Delvigne French 1873 Revolver 11mm 1873-1892
Lebel M1892 Revolver 8mm Lebel 1892-1945
MAB D Semi-Automatic .32 ACP 1923-1984
Modele 1935 Semi-Automatic 7.65x22 Longue 1935-1950
Modele 1950 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1950-1988
PAMAS Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1984-Present
Germany
Luger P08 service pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
M1879 Reichsrevolver Revolver 10.6x25 Reichsrevolver 1879-1918
Luger P08 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1904-1945
Mauser C96 "Broomhandle" Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1914-1945
Mauser 1914/1934 Semi-Automatic .32 ACP 1914-1945
Walther PP/PPK Semi-Automatic .32 ACP, .380 ACP 1929-Present
Walther P38 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1938-1945
Mauser HSc Semi-Automatic .32 ACP 1939-1945
Walther P1 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1957-1993
Heckler & Koch P8 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1993-Present

Hungary
Frommer Stop pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Frommer Stop Semi-automatic pistol .32 ACP 1919-1948
M48 Tokarev Semi-automatic pistol 7.62x25mm 1948-1963
PA-63 Semi-automatic pistol 9mm Makarov 1963-1996
FÉG Model P9RC Semi-automatic pistol 9mm Parabellum 1996-Present

Italy
Beretta M1934 pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Bodeo M1889 Revolver 10.35mm 1889-1945 (?)
Glisenti M1910 Semi-Automatic 9mm Glisenti 1910-1945 (?)
Beretta M1923 Semi-Automatic 9mm Glisenti 1923-1945 (?)
Beretta M1934 Semi-Automatic .380 ACP 1934-1951
Beretta M1951 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1951-1981
Beretta 92FS Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1981-Present


Iran

Firearm Type Calibre Service
SIG P226 Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Iraq

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Japan
Nambu Type 94 service pistol

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Meiji Type 26 Revolver 9mm Meiji 1893-1925
Nambu Type 14 Semi-Automatic 8mm Nambu 1915-1945
Nambu Type 94 Semi-Automatic 8mm Nambu 1934-1945
SIG P226 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1985-Present

Jordan

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Kuwait

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Lebanon

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Libya

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Norway

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Lefaucheux M1864 Revolver 11mm Lefaucheux 1864-1930
Nagant M1883 Revolver 9mm Nagant 1883-1894
Nagant M1893 Revolver 7.5mm Swedish Nagant 1893-1940
Kongsberg M1914 Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 1914-1945
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1940-1988
Walther P38 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1948-1988
Glock P80 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1988-Present
Panama

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Peru

Firearm Type Calibre Service
JO.LO.AR. Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 1924-19??
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Russia/Soviet Union
Tokarev TT-33 service pistol.

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Smith & Wesson No. 3 Revolver .44 Russian 1873-1895
Nagant M1895 Revolver 7.62x38R 1895-1950
Tokarev TT-33 Semi-Automatic 7.62x25 Tokarev 1933-1951
Makarov PM Semi-Automatic 9x18 Makarov 1951-Present
Stechkin APS Selective-fire 9x18 Makarov 1951-1975
Yarygin PYa Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 2003-Present

South Africa

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-
Vektor SP1/SP2 Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

Sweden
Husqvarna m/1907

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Revolver m/1887 Revolver 7.5 mm Swedish Nagant 1887-1945
Pistol m/07 Semi-Automatic 9mm Browning Long 1916-1988
Pistol m/39 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1939-19??
Pistol m/40 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1940-1988
Pistol 88 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1988-Present
Pistol 88B Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1988-Present

Switzerland
Model 1882 revolver

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Ordonnanzrevolver 1872 Revolver 10.4mm Swiss rimfire 1872-1878
Ordonnanzrevolver 1878 Revolver 10.4mm Swiss centrefire 1878-1882
Schmidt M1882 Revolver 7.5mm Swiss 1882-1946
Luger pistol Semi-Automatic 7.65 Parabellum 1900-1949
SIG P210 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1949-Present
Walther PPK Semi-Automatic .32 ACP 1965-19??
SIG P220 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1975-Present

Thailand

Firearm Type Calibre Service
M1911 pistol Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 19??-


Turkey

Firearm Type Calibre Service
ZIGANA T, C45 Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum, .45 ACP 200?

Tuvalu

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??

Ukraine

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Makarov PM Semi-Automatic 9x18mm PM 19??-
Fort-12 Semi-Automatic 9x18mm PM 1997-Present
Fort-15 Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 2006-Present

United Arab Emirates

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1971-2007
Caracal F Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 2007-Present

United Kingdom, The British Empire and Commonwealth
Webley Mk VI service revolver
A Webley Mark I Revolver, circa 1887, from Canada, cal .455 (Mk I) Webley


Firearm Type Calibre Service
Beaumont-Adams Revolver .450 Adams 1853-1880
Enfield Mk I & Mk II Revolver .476 Enfield 1880-1887
Webley Mk I-VI Revolver .455 Webley 1887-1947
Enfield No 2 Mk I Revolver .38/200 1932-1963
Webley Mk IV Revolver .38/200 1932-1963
Smith & Wesson M&P or Victory Model Revolver .38/200 1940-1963
Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1940-Present
SIG P226 Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1995- present

United States
Colt M1911A1 (left) and Beretta M9 (right) service pistols

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Harpers Ferry Model 1805 Flintlock .58 calibre 1805-?
Colt M1851 Navy Revolver .36 Ball 1851-1873
Colt Army Model 1860 Revolver .44 Ball 1860-1873
Remington Model 1858 Revolver .36, .44 Ball 1862-1875
Colt Single Action Army Single-action cartridge revolver .45 Long Colt 1873-1892
Colt M1892 Double-action revolver .38 Long Colt 1892-1911
M1911 Semi-Automatic .45 ACP 1911-Present
M1917 Revolver .45 ACP 1917-1953
Smith & Wesson Model 10 Revolver .38 Special 1935-1972
M9 pistol Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1985-Present
M11 pistol Semi-Automatic 9mm Parabellum 1985-Present
SIG P229 DAK* Semi-Automatic .40 S&W 2006-Present

* Coast Guard only; replaced M9
Vietnam

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Makarov PM Semi-Automatic 9x18mm 19??-

Yemen

Firearm Type Calibre Service
Helwan Brigadier Semi-Automatic 9x19mm Parabellum 19??-

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